Lowers limbs

4 May 2021

The lower limbs are made up of the femur, the largest bone in the body and the only bone in the region also called the femoral region. The femur forms the ball and socket hip joint with the acetabulum, made up of pubis (left and right), ilium (left and right), and ischium or sit bone (left and right). The femur also forms the knee joint with the tibia and the patella. The patella, commonly known as the kneecap, is unique as it is the only bone not present at birth. The patella form in childhood to give support to the knee for walking and crawling. 

In the lower leg, there are two bones. The tibia is a much larger and stronger bone than the fibula. It bears almost all the weight of the body. The main purpose of the fibula is to be an attachment point for muscles to help and maintain balance. The tibia and the fibula form the ankle joint with the talus, one of the seven tarsal bones in the foot. 

There are seven tarsals at the posterior end of the foot, including the calcaneus (the heel). The tarsals form joints with the five long metatarsals of the foot. Then each of the metatarsals forms a joint with one of the sets of phalanges in the toes. Except for the big toe, which only has two phalanges made up of the proximal phalange and the distal phalange, each toe has three phalanges made up of the proximal phalange, the middle phalange and the distal phalange.

Skeletal System 

Relation between the ball and socket joints and the inferior parts of the ischium bones, the anterior superior area of the ilium bones called the iliac crests and with the pubic symphysis through cellular awareness

Relation between the ischium bones and the heels of the foot through alignment and cellular awareness 

Relation between the tibia and the tarsals and phalanges that connect to the first (big toe), second and third toe relating to the anterior body through alignment and cellular awareness 

Relation between the fibula and the tarsals and phalanges that connect to the forth and fifth (little toe) toe relating to the posterior body through alignment and cellular awareness